Farmakologisk behandling af type 2-diabetes

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Referencer

Referencer til indledende afsnit

  1. Snorgaard O, Drivsholm TO, Breum L et al. Farmakologisk behandling af type 2-diabetes – mål og algoritmer. 2011. http://www.dsam.dk/files/11/diabetesbehandling.pdf
  2. Lassen B, Christiansen JS, Lauritzen T et al. Insulinbehandling af patienter med type 2-diabetes. 2011. http://www.dsam.dk/files/11/diabetesbehandling.pdf
  3. Davies MJ, D’Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN et al. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia 2018; 61:2461-98.
  4. Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, Rossing P, Mingrone G et al. 2019 update to: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia 2020; 63:221-8
  5. Sundhedsstyrelsen. Den Nationale rekommandationsliste. IRF 2020. Farmakologisk glukosesænkende behandling af type 2 diabetes. https://www.sst.dk/-/media/Viden/Laegemidler/Rekommandationsliste/Farmakologisk-glukoses%C3%A6nkende-behandling-af-type-2-diabetes/Farmakologisk-glukosesaenkende-behandling-af-type-2-diabetes-_version-2_0_-2020_.ashx?la=da&hash=3AD845688E187D3E4ED2F7211F7AE197DAD8A403
  6. Medicinrådets rapport 2021
  7. Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämälänen H et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(18):1343-50.
  8. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Foeler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346(6):393-403.
  9. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT); an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2018; 391(10120):541-51.
  10. The Look AHEAD Research Group. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:145-54
  11. The Look AHEAD Research Group. Association of the magnitude of weight loss and changes in physical fitness with long-term cardiovascular disease outcomes in overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes: a post-hoc analysis of the Look AHEAD randomized clinical trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2016; 4: 913–21.
  12. Sundhedsstyrelsen. National klinisk retningslinje for udvalgte sundhedsfaglige indsatser ved rehabilitering til patienter med type 2 diabetes. 2015. www.sst.dk

Referencer til farmakologisk behandling af hyperglykæmi

  1. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet Lond Engl. 12. september 1998;352(9131):854–65.
  2. Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, Rossing P, Mingrone G, Mathieu C, m.fl. 2019 Update to:Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2020;43(2):487–93.
  3. Palmer SC, Tendal B, Mustafa RA, Vandvik PO, Li S, Hao Q, m.fl. Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for type 2 diabetes: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 13. januar 2021;372:m4573.

Referencer til insulinbehandling

  1. Raz I, Mosenzon O. Early insulinization to prevent diabetes progression. Diabetes Care. august 2013;36 Suppl 2:S190-197.
  2. Khunti K, Alsifri S, Aronson R, Cigrovski Berković M, Enters-Weijnen C, Forsén T, m.fl. Rates and predictors of hypoglycaemia in 27 585 people from 24 countries with insulin-treated type 1 and type 2 diabetes: the global HAT study. Diabetes Obes Metab. september 2016;18(9):907–15.
  3. Miller ME, Bonds DE, Gerstein HC, Seaquist ER, Bergenstal RM, Calles-Escandon J, m.fl. The effects of baseline characteristics, glycaemia treatment approach, and glycated haemoglobin concentration on the risk of severe hypoglycaemia: post hoc epidemiological analysis of the ACCORD study. BMJ. 8. januar 2010;340:b5444.
  4. Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus: epidemiology and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. december 2014;10(12):711–22.
  5. Rodbard HW, Cariou B, Zinman B, Handelsman Y, Philis-Tsimikas A, Skjøth TV, m.fl. Comparison of insulin degludec with insulin glargine in insulin-naive subjects with Type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized, treat-to-target trial. Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc. november 2013;30(11):1298–304.
  6. Yki-Järvinen H, Bergenstal R, Ziemen M, Wardecki M, Muehlen-Bartmer I, Boelle E, m.fl. New insulin glargine 300 units/mL versus glargine 100 units/mL in people with type 2 diabetes using oral agents and basal insulin: glucose control and hypoglycemia in a 6-month randomized controlled trial (EDITION 2). Diabetes Care. december 2014;37(12):3235–43.
  7. Wysham C, Bhargava A, Chaykin L, de la Rosa R, Handelsman Y, Troelsen LN, m.fl. Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SWITCH 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 4. juli 2017;318(1):45–56
  8. Rosenstock J, Cheng A, Ritzel R, Bosnyak Z, Devisme C, Cali AMG, m.fl. More Similarities Than Differences Testing Insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL Versus Insulin Degludec 100 Units/mL in Insulin-Naive Type 2 Diabetes: The Randomized Head-to-Head BRIGHT Trial. Diabetes Care. oktober 2018;41(10):2147–54.
  9. Philis-Tsimikas A, Klonoff DC, Khunti K, Bajaj HS, Leiter LA, Hansen MV, m.fl. Risk of hypoglycaemia with insulin degludec versus insulin glargine U300 in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes: the randomised, head-to-head CONCLUDE trial. Diabetologia. april 2020;63(4):698–710.

Referencer farmakologisk behandling af blodtryk

  1. Patel A, ADVANCE Collaborative Group, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Woodward M, m.fl. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 8. september 2007;370(9590):829–40.
  2. Xie X, Atkins E, Lv J, Bennett A, Neal B, Ninomiya T, m.fl. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 30. januar 2016;387(10017):435–43.
  3. Böhm M, Schumacher H, Teo KK, Lonn EM, Mahfoud F, Mann JFE, m.fl. Achieved blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: results from ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. Lancet. 3. juni 2017;389(10085):2226–37.
  4. ACCORD Study Group, Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, Goff DC, Grimm RH, m.fl. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 29. april 2010;362(17):1575–85.
  5. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. Pharmacological blood pressure lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease across different levels of blood pressure: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis. Lancet. 1. maj 2021;397(10285):1625–36.
  6. Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, m.fl. 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 1. september 2018;39(33):3021–104.
  7. Pedersen SA, Gaist D, Schmidt SAJ, Hölmich LR, Friis S, Pottegård A. Hydrochlorothiazide use and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer: A nationwide case-control study from Denmark. J Am Acad Dermatol. april 2018;78(4):673-681.e9.

Referencer til farmakologisk behandling af albuminuri og nedsat nyrefunktion

  1. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Diabetes Work Group. KDIGO 2020 Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes Management in Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int. oktober 2020;98(4S):S1–115.
  2. de Zeeuw D, Remuzzi G, Parving H-H, Keane WF, Zhang Z, Shahinfar S, m.fl. Proteinuria, a target for renoprotection in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy: lessons from RENAAL. Kidney Int. juni 2004;65(6):2309–20.
  3. de Zeeuw D, Remuzzi G, Parving H-H, Keane WF, Zhang Z, Shahinfar S, m.fl. Albuminuria, a therapeutic target for cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Circulation. 24. august 2004;110(8):921–7.
  4. Persson F, Bain SC, Mosenzon O, Heerspink HJL, Mann JFE, Pratley R, m.fl. Changes in Albuminuria Predict Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: A Post Hoc Analysis of the LEADER Trial. Diabetes Care. april 2021;44(4):1020–6.
  5. Deckert T, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Borch-Johnsen K, Jensen T, Kofoed-Enevoldsen A. Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage. The Steno hypothesis. Diabetologia. april 1989;32(4):219–26.
  6. Wanner C, Inzucchi SE, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, von Eynatten M, Mattheus M, Johansen OE, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Zinman B, Investigators E-RO. Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:323-334.
  7. Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, Erondu N, Shaw W, Law G, Desai M, Matthews DR, Group CPC. Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017;377:644-657.
  8. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, Mosenzon O, Kato ET, Cahn A, Silverman MG, Zelniker TA, Kuder JF, Murphy SA, Bhatt DL, Leiter LA, McGuire DK, Wilding JPH, Ruff CT, Gause-Nilsson IAM, Fredriksson M, Johansson PA, Langkilde AM, Sabatine MS, Investigators D-T. Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2019;380:347-357.
  9. Cherney DZI, Charbonnel B, Cosentino F, Dagogo-Jack S, McGuire DK, Pratley R, Shih WJ, Frederich R, Maldonado M, Pong A, Cannon CP, Investigators VC. Effects of ertugliflozin on kidney composite outcomes, renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an analysis from the randomised VERTIS CV trial. Diabetologia 2021;64:1256-1267.
  10. Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Cannon CP, Capuano G, Chu PL, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Meininger G, Brenner BM, Mahaffey KW, Investigators CT. Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2019;380:2295-2306.
  11. Heerspink HJL, Stefansson BV, Correa-Rotter R, Chertow GM, Greene T, Hou FF, Mann JFE, McMurray JJV, Lindberg M, Rossing P, Sjostrom CD, Toto RD, Langkilde AM, Wheeler DC, Committees D-CT, Investigators. Dapagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. N Engl J Med 2020.

Referencer til farmakologisk behandling af dyslipidæmi

  1. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaborators. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta.analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Lancet 2012; 380:581-90.
  2. de Vries FM, Kolthof J, Postma MJ, et al. Efficacy of standard and intensive statin treatment for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetes patients: A meta-analysis. PloS ONE 2014; 9(11):e111247
  3. de Vries FM, Denig P, Pouwels KB et al. Primary prevention of major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events with statins in diabetic patients. A meta-analysis. Drugs 2012; 72(12):2365-73.
  4. Silverman MG, Ference BA, Kyungah I et al. Association between lowering LDL-C and cardiovascular risk reduction among different therapeutic interventions. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2016; 316(12):1289-97.
  5. Giugliano R, Cannon C, Blazing MA, Nicolau JC, Corbalán R et al. Benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes and safety in pati ents with versus without diabetes melleitus. Circulation 2018; 137:1571-82.
  6. Sabatine MS, Leiter LA, Wiviott SD et al. Cardiovascular safety and efficacy of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab in patients with and without diabetes and the effect of evolocumab on glycemia and the risk of new-onset diabetes: aprespecified analysis of the FOURIER randomized controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2017; 5(12):941-50.
  7. Ray KK, Colhoun HM, Szarek M, Baccara-Dinet M, Bhatt DL et al. Effects of alirpcumab on cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes after acute coronary syndrome in patients with or without diabetes: a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOME randomized controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019; 7:618-28.
  8. Herrett E, Williamson E, Brack K, Beaumont D, Perkins A, Thayne A, m.fl. Statin treatment and muscle symptoms: series of randomised, placebo controlled n-of-1 trials. BMJ. 24. februar 2021;372:n135.

Referencer til antitrombotisk behandling

  1. De Berardis G, Sacco M, Strippoli GFM, Pellegrini F, Graziano G et al. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2009; 339:b4531.

Referencer til patienter med diabetes og hjerte-kar-sygdom/hjertesvigt

  1. Jørgensen ME et al: Diabetes demography, cardiometabolic risk factors, and acute- and chronic diabetes complications in a nationwide diabetes registry in Denmark; Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen 2020
  2. Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, Erondu N, m.fl. Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 17. august 2017;377(7):644–57
  3. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, Bluhmki E, Hantel S, m.fl. Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 26. november 2015;373(22):2117–28.
  4. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, Mosenzon O, Kato ET, Cahn A, m.fl. Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 24. januar 2019;380(4):347–57.
  5. Furtado RHM, Bonaca MP, Raz I, Zelniker TA, Mosenzon O, Cahn A, m.fl. Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Previous Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. 28. maj 2019;139(22):2516–27.
  6. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, Mann JFE, Nauck MA, m.fl. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 28. juli 2016;375(4):311–22.
  7. Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Lakshmanan M, Pais P, m.fl. Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl. 13. juli 2019;394(10193):121–30.
  8. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jódar E, Leiter LA, m.fl. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 10 2016;375(19):1834–44.
  9. Husain M, Birkenfeld AL, Donsmark M, Dungan K, Eliaschewitz FG, Franco DR, m.fl. Oral Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 29. august 2019;381(9):841–51.
  10. Rådholm K, Figtree G, Perkovic V, Solomon SD, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, m.fl. Canagliflozin and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the CANVAS Program. Circulation. 31. juli 2018;138(5):458–68.
  11. McMurray JJV, Solomon SD, Inzucchi SE, Køber L, Kosiborod MN, Martinez FA, m.fl. Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction. N Engl J Med. 21. november 2019;381(21):1995–2008.
  12. Packer M, Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, Ferreira JP, Pocock SJ, m.fl. Effect of Empagliflozin on the Clinical Stability of Patients With Heart Failure and a Reduced Ejection Fraction: The EMPEROR-Reduced Trial. Circulation. 26. januar 2021;143(4):326–36.
  13. Cosentino F, Cannon CP, Cherney DZI, Masiukiewicz U, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, m.fl. Efficacy of Ertugliflozin on Heart Failure-Related Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Established Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Results of the VERTIS CV Trial. Circulation. 8. december 2020;142(23):2205–15.
  14. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jódar E, Leiter LA, m.fl. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 10 2016;375(19):1834–44.
  15. Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Lakshmanan M, Pais P, m.fl. Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl. 13. juli 2019;394(10193):121–30. 

Referencer til patienter med diabetes og nyresygdom

  1. Jørgensen ME et al: Diabetes demography, cardiometabolic risk factors, and acute- and chronic diabetes complications in a nationwide diabetes registry in Denmark; Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen 2020

Referencer til patienter med diabetes og svær overvægt

  1. https://www.sst.dk/da/udgivelser/2018/danskernes-sundhed-den-nationale-sundhedsprofil-2017
  2. Brown E et al SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity: Mechanistic possibilities; Obes Rev. 2019 Jun;20(6):816-828
  3. Zinman B, Bhosekar V, Busch R, Holst I, Ludvik B, Thielke D et. al. Semaglutide once weekly as add-on to SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy in type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN 9): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial; Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 May;7(5):356-367
  4. Lingvay I, Capehorn MS, Catarig AM, Johansen P, Lawson J, Sandberg A et al. Efficacy of Once-Weekly Semaglutide vs Empagliflozin Added to Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes: Patient-Level Meta-analysis; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):e4593-604
  5. Husain M,  Birkenfeld AL, Donsmark M, Dungan K, Eliaschewitz FG, Franco DR et al. Oral Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes; N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 29;381(9):841-851
  6. https://www.sst.dk/da/nyheder/2017/~/media/A6FEE3C0A3AE4FE0B37206B2488D7FF7.ashx
  7. https://www.sst.dk/da/udgivelser/2017/~/media/F012C263031D411BA45982CB13B19589.ashx
  8. Carlsson LMS, Sjöholm K, Jacobson P, Andersson-Assarsson JC, Svensson PA, Taube M et al. Life Expectancy after Bariatric Surgery in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study; N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 15;383(16):1535-1543
  9. Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, Wolski K, Aminian A, Brethauer SA et al. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes - 5-Year Outcomes; N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):641-651
  10. Castellana M, Procino F, Biacchi E, Zupo R, Lampignano L, Castellana F et al. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass vs Sleeve Gastrectomy for Remission of Type 2 Diabetes; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Mar 8;106(3):922-933
  11. Borgeraas H, Hofsø D, Hertel JK, Hjelmesaeth J. Comparison of the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on remission of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials; Obes Rev. 2020 Jun;21(6):e13011
  12. Rubino F, Nathan DM, Eckel RH, Schauer PR, Alberti KGMM, Zimmet PZ. Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organization; Diabetes Care. 2016 Jun;39(6):861-77
  13. McGlone ER, Carey I, Veličković V, Chana P, Mahawar K, Batterham RL. Bariatric surgery for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus requiring insulin: Clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness analyses; PLoS Med. 2020 Dec 7;17(12): e1003228
  14. Holst JJ, Madsbad S. Mechanisms of surgical control of type 2 diabetes: GLP-1 is key factor; Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016 Jul;12(6):1236-42
  15. Gribsholt SB, Pedersen AM, Svensson E, Thomsen RW, Richelsen B. Prevalence of Self-reported Symptoms After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity; JAMA Surg. 2016 Jun 1;151(6):504-11

Referencer patienter med diabetes og fremskreden alder

  1. Vass M, Hendriksen C. [In Denmark, there is a lack of consensus in the definition of frailty]. Ugeskrift for laeger. 2016;178(43).
  2. Oxlund C  JJ, Christensen K.L. , Bang L. E , Pareek M,  Hecht M. Arteriel hypertension 2021 [updated 10 Maj 2021; cited 2021 23 june]. Available from: https://nbv.cardio.dk/hypertension.
  3. Meneilly GS, Knip A, Miller DB, Sherifali D, Tessier D, Zahedi A. Diabetes in Older People. Canadian journal of diabetes. 2018;42 Suppl 1:S283-s95.
  4. Older Adults: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2021. Diabetes care. 2021;44(Supplement 1):S168-S79.
  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021. Diabetes care. 2021;44(Suppl 1):S125-s50.
  6. Sinclair AJ, Abdelhafiz A, Dunning T, Izquierdo M, Rodriguez Manas L, Bourdel-Marchasson I, et al. An International Position Statement on the Management of Frailty in Diabetes Mellitus: Summary of Recommendations 2017. The Journal of frailty & aging. 2018;7(1):10-20.
  7. Schernthaner G, Grimaldi A, Di Mario U, Drzewoski J, Kempler P, Kvapil M, et al. GUIDE study: double-blind comparison of once-daily gliclazide MR and glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients. European journal of clinical investigation. 2004;34(8):535-42.
  8. Leiter LA, Teoh H, Braunwald E, Mosenzon O, Cahn A, Kumar KM, et al. Efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in older participants in the SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial. Diabetes care. 2015;38(6):1145-53.
  9. Karyekar CS, Ravichandran S, Allen E, Fleming D, Frederich R. Tolerability and efficacy of glycemic control with saxagliptin in older patients (aged ≥ 65 years) with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical interventions in aging. 2013;8:419-30.
  10. Gilbert MP, Bain SC, Franek E, Jodar-Gimeno E, Nauck MA, Pratley R, et al. Effect of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Elderly Patients: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Annals of internal medicine. 2019;170(6):423-6.
  11. Cahn A, Mosenzon O, Wiviott SD, Rozenberg A, Yanuv I, Goodrich EL, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in the Elderly: Analysis From the DECLARE-TIMI 58 Study. Diabetes care. 2020;43(2):468-75.
  12. Monteiro P, Bergenstal RM, Toural E, Inzucchi SE, Zinman B, Hantel S, et al. Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in older patients in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial. Age Ageing. 2019;48(6):859-66.
  13. Karnieli E, Baeres FM, Dzida G, Ji Q, Ligthelm R, Ross S, et al. Observational study of once-daily insulin detemir in people with type 2 diabetes aged 75 years or older: a sub-analysis of data from the Study of Once daily LeVEmir (SOLVE). Drugs & aging. 2013;30(3):167-75.
  14. Pandya N, DiGenio A, Gao L, Patel M. Efficacy and safety of insulin glargine compared to other interventions in younger and older adults: a pooled analysis of nine open-label, randomized controlled trials in patients with type 2 diabetes. Drugs & aging. 2013;30(6):429-38.
  15. Drljevic-Nielsen A, Laursen T. [Polypharmacy to the elderly prevails]. Ugeskrift for laeger. 2015;177(12):V08140461.
  16. Andersen JS, Bro F, Søndergaard J, Thomsen JL. Polyfarmaci og almen praksis. Ugeskrift for laeger. 2019;181(4).
  17. Seponeringslisten 2021 20-11-2020: https://www.sst.dk/da/Viden/Laegemidler/Medicingennemgang/Seponeringslisten.

Referencer til patienter med psykisk sygdom og risiko for diabetes

  1. Medicinrådets behandlingsvejledning vedrørende antipsykotika til behandling af psykotiske tilstande hos voksne, juli 2020 

Referencer til glukokortikoidbehandling og diabetes

  1. Burt MG, Willenberg VM, Petersons CJ, Smith MD, Ahern MJ, Stranks SN. Screening for diabetes in patients with inflammatory rheumatological disease administered long-term prednisolone: a cross-sectional study. Rheumatol Oxf Engl. juni 2012;51(6):1112–9.
  2. Delfs N, Struja T, Gafner S, Muri T, Baechli C, Schuetz P, m.fl. Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with Glucocorticoid-Induced Hyperglycemia-A Retrospective Analysis. J Clin Med. 17. december 2020;9(12).
  3. Radhakutty A, Burt MG. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Critical review of the evidence underlying management of glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycaemia. Eur J Endocrinol. 1. oktober 2018;179(4):R207–18.
  4. Liu X, Zhu X, Miao Q, Ye H, Zhang Z, Li Y-M. Hyperglycemia induced by glucocorticoids in nondiabetic patients: a meta-analysis. Ann Nutr Metab. 2014;65(4):324–32.
  5. Zylla D, Gilmore G, Eklund J, Richter S, Carlson A. Impact of diabetes and hyperglycemia on health care utilization, infection risk, and survival in patients with cancer receiving glucocorticoids with chemotherapy. J Diabetes Complications. april 2019;33(4):335–9.
  6. Roberts A, James J, Dhatariya K, Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) for Inpatient Care. Management of hyperglycaemia and steroid (glucocorticoid) therapy: a guideline from the Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) for Inpatient Care group. Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc. august 2018;35(8):1011–7.
  7. Pernicova I, Kelly S, Ajodha S, Sahdev A, Bestwick JP, Gabrovska P, m.fl. Metformin to reduce metabolic complications and inflammation in patients on systemic glucocorticoid therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. april 2020;8(4):278–91.
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