Vejledninger og FAQtaark


Udskriv denne side
Print kapitel


  2. Sundhedsstyrelsen. Det nationale diabetesregister 2007. Nye tal fra Sundhedsstyrelsen 2009:1 . 2009. 
  3. Glumer C et al. “Prevalences of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in a Danish population: the Inter99 study.” Diabetes Care 26.8 (2003): 2335-40.
  4. Carstensen B. et al. “The Danish National Diabetes Register: trends in incidence, prevalence and mortality.” Diabetologia 51.12 (2008): 2187-96.
  5. Sundhedsstyrelsens Center for Evaluering og Medicinsk Teknologivurderings (CEMTV). Type 2-diabetes. Medicinsk teknologivurdering af screening, diagnostik og behandling. 2003; 5(1). 2003.
  6. Use of Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. Abbreviated Report of a WHO Consultation. World Health Organization 2011. WHO/NMH/CHP/CPM/11.1
  7. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications, Report of a WHO Consultation, Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. WHO/NCD/NCS/99.2. 1999. Geneva, World Health Organisation, non-communicable disease surveillance. 
  8. Bonora E et al. The pros and cons of diagnosing diabetes with A1C. Diabetes Care 2011; 34 Suppl 2:S184-S190.
  9. Lauritzen T, et al. HbA1c and cardiovascular risk score identify people who may benefit from preventive interventions: a 7 year follow-up of a high-risk screening programme for diabetes in primary care (ADDITION), Denmark. Diabetologia 2011; 54(6):1318-1326.
  10. Alexander CM et al. “NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older.” Diabetes 52.5 (2003): 1210-14.
  11. Lutgens MW et al. Easily obtainable clinical features increase the diagnostic accuracy for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: an evidence-based report. Prim Care Diabetes 2008; 2(4):207-211.
  12. Lauenborg J et al. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes: a long-term follow-up in a Danish population. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(5):1194-1199.
  13. Lauenborg J et al. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a danish population of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus is three-fold higher than in the general population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90(7):4004-4010.
  14. Khaw KT et al. Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: the European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141(6):413-420. 
  15. Selvin E et al. Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults. N Engl J Med 2010; 362(9):800-811.
  16. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010; 33 Suppl 1:S62-S69.
  17. International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009 Jul;32(7):1327-34.
  18. Rasmussen S, et al. “Determinants of progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screened population: 3 year follow-up in the ADDITION study, Denmark.” Diabetologia 51.2 (2008): 249-57.
  19. Li G et al. “The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study.” Lancet 371.9626 (2008): 1783-89.
  20. Tuomilehto J et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(18):1343-1350.
  21. Knowler WC et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346(6):393-403.
  22. Carstensen B et al. The Danish National Diabetes Register: trends in incidence, prevalence and mortality. Diabetologia 2008; 51(12):2187-2196.
  23. Gaede P et al. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N.Engl.J Med. 2003;348:383-93.
  24. Hansen LJ et al. “Individualised treatment goals in diabetes care.” Scand.J.Prim.Health Care. 22.2 (2004): 71-77.
  25. Anderson RJ et al. The Prevalence of Comorbid Depression in Adults With Diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1069-78.
  26. Grigsby AB et al. Prevalence of anxiety in adults with diabetes. A systematic review. J Psychosom Res 2002;53:1053–60.
  27. Ciechanowski PS et al. The relationship of depressive symptoms to symptom reporting, self-care and glucose control in diabetes. General Hospital Psychiatry 2003;25:246-52.
  28. Lustman PJ et al. Depression in diabetic patients: The relationship between mood and glycemic control. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 2003: 19:113-122.
  29. Kristensen JK et al. “Diabetes prevalence and quality of diabetes care among Lebanese or Turkish immigrants compared to a native Danish population.” Prim.Care Diabetes 1.3 (2007): 159-65.
  30. Singhammer, J. Etniske minoriteters sundhed. Rapport udgivet af center for Folkesundhed. 2008.
  31. Folmann NB et al. Etniske minoriteter – sygdom og brug af sundhedsvæsenet – et registerstudie. Sundhedstyrelsen. 2006.
  32. Wittrup I et al. Diabeteskole for etniske minoriteter i nærmiljøet. Center For Folkesundhed Region Midtjylland. 2008.
  33. Fødevarerdirektoratet. Maden hos indvandrere og flygtninge i Danmark. Fødevareministeriet. 2002.
  34. Olivarius NF et al. Randomised controlled trial of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMJ 2001;323:970-5.
  35. Petersen KF et al. “Reversal of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia by moderate weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes 54.3 (2005): 603-08.
  36. Pi-Sunyer et al. “Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial.” Diabetes Care 30.6 (2007): 1374-83.
  37. Yudkin JS. How can we best prolong life? Benefits of coronary risk factor reduction in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects. BMJ 1993;306:1313-8.
  38. Corradi L et al. Association between smoking and micro-albuminuria in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J.Hypertens.Suppl 1993;11 Suppl 5:S190-S191.
  39. Maser RE et al. Epidemiological correlates of diabetic neuropathy. Report from Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetes 1989;38:1456-61.
  40. Stamler J et al. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care 1993;16:434-44.
  41. Cromwell J et al. Cost-effectiveness of the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline for smoking cessation. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. JAMA 1997;278:1759-66.
  42. Silagy C et al. Meta-analysis on efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies in smoking cessation. Lancet 1994;343:139-42.
  43. Fiore MC et al. The effectiveness of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation. A metaanalysis. JAMA 1994;271:1940-7.
  44. Hurt RD et al. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. N.Engl.J.Med. 1997;337:1195-202.
  45. Williamson DF et al. Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort. N.Engl.J.Med. 1991;324:739-45.
  46. Skive L. Motionsmanualen. Komiteen for Sundhedsoplysning i samarbejde med PLO og DSAM. 1-55. 2003.
  47. Boule NG et al. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 2001;286:1218-27.
  48. Manley SE et al. Effects of three months’ diet after diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes on plasma lipids and lipoproteins (UKPDS 45). UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Diabet Med 2000 Jul;17(7):518-23.
  49. Pronk NP et al. Physical activity and long-term maintenance of weight loss. Obes.Res 2, 587-599. 1994.
  50. Griffin SJ et al. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2011; 378(9786):156-167.
  51. Wadden TA et al. Benefits of lifestyle modification in the pharmacologic treatment of obesity: a randomized trial. Arch.Intern.Med. 2001;161:218-27.
  52. Hollander PA et al. Role of orlistat in the treatment of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. A 1-year randomized double-blind study. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1288-94.
  53. Sjostrom L et al. “Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects.” N.Engl.J.Med. 357.8 (2007): 741-52.
  54. Valmadrid CT et al. Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease mortality in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1999;282:239-46.
  55. Koivisto VA et al. Alcohol with a meal has no adverse effects on postprandial glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1612-4.
  56. Kerr D et al. Alcohol causes hypoglycaemic unawareness in healthy volunteers and patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1990;33:216-21.
  57. Snorgaard O et al. Farmakologisk behandling af type 2 diabetes – mål og algoritmer. Institut for Rationel Farmakoterapi. 2011.
  58. Inzucchi SE et al. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia 2012 Jun;55(6):1577-96.
  59. Lewis SJ et al. Effect of pravastatin on cardiovascular events in older patients with myocardial infarction and cholesterol levels in the average range. Results of the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 1998;129:681-9.
  60. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 highrisk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:23-33.
  61. Colhoun HM et al. “Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.” Lancet 364.9435 (2004): 685-96.
  62. Baigent C et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010; 376(9753):1670-1681.
  63. 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. Guidelines Subcommittee. J Hypertens. 1999;17:151-83.
  64. Hypertension in Diabetes Study (HDS): I. Prevalence of hypertension in newly presenting type 2 diabetic patients and the association with risk factors for cardiovascular and diabetic complications. J.Hypertens. 1993;11:309-17.
  65. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group [see comments] [published erratum appears in BMJ 1999 Jan 2;318(7175):29]. BMJ 317.7160 (1998): 703-13.
  66. Hansson L et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 1998;351:1755-62.
  67. Adler AI et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321:412-9.
  68. Pahor M et al. Therapeutic benefits of ACE inhibitors and other antihypertensive drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:888-92.
  69. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Lancet 2000;355:253-9.
  70. Cardiologisk Selskab og Endokrinologisk Selskab, DSC vejledning. Diabetes og hjertesygdom. 2008.
  71. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet 1998;352:837-53.
  72. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group [see comments] [published erratum appears in Lancet 1998 Nov 7;352(9139):1557]. Lancet 1998;352:854-65.
  73. Duckworth W et al. Glucose Control and Vascular Complications in Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009 Jan 8;360(2):129-39.
  74. Patel A et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2560-72.
  75. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2545-59.
  76. Boussageon R et al. Effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and microvascular events in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2011; 343:d4169.
  77. Ray KK et al. Effect of intensive control of glucose on cardiovascular outcomes and death in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2009; 373(9677):1765-1772.
  78. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research Group. Intensive Diabetes Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005 Dec 22;353(25):2643-53.
  79. Skyler JS et al. Intensive Glycemic Control and the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events: Implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA Diabetes Trials: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a scientific statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. Diabetes Care 2009 Jan 1;32(1):187-92.
  80. Holman RR et al. 10-Year Follow-up of Intensive Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 2008 Oct 9;359(15):1577-89.
  81. Kooy A et al. Long-term effects of metformin on metabolism and microvascular and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169:616-25.
  82. Selvin E et al. Cardiovascular outcomes in trials of oral diabetic medications. A systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168:2070-80.
  83. Tzoulaki I et al. Risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral antidiabetes drugs: retrospective cohort study using UK general practice research database. BMJ 2009; 339:b4731 doi:10.1136/bmj.b4731
  84. Roussel R et al. Metformin use and mortality among patients with diabetes and atherothrombosis. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170:1892-9.
  85. Gillies CL et al. Pharmacological and lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007; 334:299
  86. Link til vejledning om specielle forhold vedr. erhverv og diabetes / behandling af diabetes på Diabetesforeningens hjemmeside:
  87. Holst H et al. Laktatacidose ved behandling af type 2-diabetes med metformin. Ugeskr Laeger , 2-5. 5-3-2012.
  88. Lassen B. Insulinbehandling af patienter med type 2 diabetes. Institut for Rationel Farmakoterapi. 2011.
  89. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002;324:71-86.
  90. Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians’ Health Study. Steering Committee of the Physicians’ Health Study Research Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 1989;321:129-35.
  91. Parving HH et al. “Prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in a referred cohort of type II diabetic patients: a global perspective.” Kidney Int. 69.11 (2006): 2057-63.
  92. Gerstein HC et al. “Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals.” JAMA 286.4 (2001): 421-26.
  93. Strippoli G et al. (2004) Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists on mortality and renal outcomes in diabetic nephropathy: systematic review. BMJ 329:828.
  94. Brenner BM et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N.Engl.J.Med. 2001;345:861-9.
  95. Yu-Poth S et al. Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;69:632-46.
  96. Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians’ Health Study. Steering Committee of the Physicians’ Health Study Research Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 1989;321:129-35.
  97. Stratton IM et al. (2000) Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 321:405-412.
  98. Focal photocoagulation treatment of diabetic macular edema. Relationship of treatment effect to fluorescein angiographic and other retinal characteristics at baseline: ETDRS report no. 19. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1144-55.
  99. The Danish Society of Nephrology. Danish National Registry Report on dialysis and transplantation in Denmark 1997. Copenhagen, Denmark. 1997.
  100. Karvestedt L et al. Peripheral sensory neuropathy associates with micro- or macroangiopathy: results from a population-based study of type 2 diabetic patients in Sweden. Diabetes Care 2009; 32(2):317-322.
  101. Lewis EJ et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N.Engl.J.Med. 2001;345:851-60.
  102. Wong MC et al. Effects of treatments for symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: systematic review. BMJ 2007; 335(7610):87.
  103. Nokleby K et al. [Diabetic neuropathy--a clinical review]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2005; 125(12):1646-1649.
  104. Aring AM et al. Evaluation and prevention of diabetic neuropathy. Am Fam Physician 2005; 71(11):2123-2128.
  105. Vinik AI et al. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(5):1553-1579.
  106. Chu NV et al. Erectile dysfunction and diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 2002; 2(1):60-66.
  107. Olaleye D et al. Evaluation of three screening tests and a risk assessment model for diagnosing peripheral neuropathy in the diabetes clinic. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001; 54(2):115-128.
  108. May O et al. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: prevalence and estimated risk of coronary heart disease in the general population. J Intern Med 2000; 248(6):483-491.
  109. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med 1993; 329(14):977-986.
  110. Larsen JR et al. Optimal blood glucose control during 18 years preserves peripheral nerve function in patients with 30 years’ duration of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(8):2400-2404.
  111. Dworkin RH et al. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: evidence-based recommendations. Pain 2007; 132(3):237-251.
  112. Mayfield JA et al. Preventive foot care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 Suppl 1:S63-S64.
  113. Gastaldelli A et al. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population. Hepatology 2009 May;49(5):1537-44.
  114. Ekstedt M et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatology 2006 Oct;44(4):865-73.
  115. Ueno T et al. Therapeutic effects of restricted diet and exercise in obese patients with fatty liver. J Hepatol 1997 Jul;27(1):103-7.
  116. Huang MA et al. One-year intense nutritional counseling results in histological improvement in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol 2005 May;100(5):1072-81.
  117. Dam-Larsen S et al. Long term prognosis of fatty liver: risk of chronic liver disease and death. Gut 2004 May;53(5):750-5.
  118. Fassio E et al. Natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a longitudinal study of repeat liver biopsies. Hepatology 2004 Oct;40(4):820-6.
  119. McCabe CJ et al. Evaluation of a diabetic foot screening and protection programme. Diabet.Med. 1998;15:80-4.
  120. Sundhedsstyrelsen. Diabetiske fodsår – en medicinsk teknologivurdering. 2011.
  121. Kumar S et al. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments: a simple, effective and inexpensive screening device for identifying diabetic patients at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Res Clin.Pract. 1991;13:63-7.
  122. Lund JD. Diabetes i tandplejen. Tandlægebladet [103], 318-325. 1999. (www.tandlæ
  123. Diabetes and periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 1996; 67:166-176.
  124. Sundhedsstyrelsen. Specialisering i Sygeplejen – udvikling af en fælles begrebsramme. 2009.
  125. Almen praksis’ rolle i fremtidens sundhedsvæsen – rapport fra udvalg vedrørende almen praksis. Ministeriet for Sundhed og Forebyggelse, Udvalg vedrørende almen praksis’ rolle i fremtidens sundhedsvæsen. 2008.
  126. Laurant M et al. Substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care. Cochrane database systematic reviews.